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Uburenganzira bw'abagore: Gukuramo inda ntibikwiye gufatwa nk’icyaha

Mu Rwanda inteko ishinga amategeko umutwe w’abadepite uherutse gutora Itegeko rigenga ikurwamo ry’inda. Nyuma y’itorwa ry’iri tegeko abanyarwanda b’ingeri zitandukanye ntibabyakiriye kimwe. Bamwe bavuga ko bitari bikwiye ko iryo tegeko ritorwa bitwaje ko ngo iri tegeko ari ugushyigikira ibikorwa by’ubusambanyi, guta umuco ndetse bamwe ntibanatinye kuvuga ko ari ugukomeza guha urwaho bamwe mu bagore cyangwa abakobwa uburenganzira bwo kwica kandi ari kimwe mu byaho Imana yanga urunuka. Kurundi ruhande hari ababyakiriye neza bavuga ko iri tegeko rigiye kubohora bamwe mu batwita inda ku buryo bubatunguye, aha ni ukuvuga ba bandi bafatwa ku ngufu ndetse n’abandi bisanga batwite ababateye izo nda batiteguye kubafasha ari nabyo binatera bamwe igikomere mu buzima ku buryo n’uwo mwana wavuka yakurira mu bibazo byo kubura urukundo rwa kibyeyi cyangwa se ugasanga ajugunwa n’uwamubyaye.

Gukuramo inda ntibikwiye gufatwa nk’ishyano cyangwa icyaha gikomeye igihe bikozwe n’umuganga wabyigiye kandi ku mpamvu zumvikana. Gukuramo inda ni uburenganzira bw’umugore nk’uko bigaragazwa n’amategeko arengera umugore yashyizweho n’umuryango w’abibumbye urengera uburenganzira bwa muntu bityo ntawukwiye kubumwima mu gihe bibaye ngombwa.
Ku batumva itegeko ryo gukuramo inda, si buri mugore wese wemerewe kuyikuramo aho iri tegeko ryubahirizwa. Itegeko rirasobanutse neza kuko risobanura neza igihe umugore cyangwa umukobwa yemererwa gukuramo inda ndetse kandi rikanerekana ko bigomba gukorwa n’abaganga babyigiye kandi bikanakorerwa mu mavuriro afite ibyangombwa bihagije birimo imiti, ibikoresho, abaganga b’inzobere, abajyanama ndetse n’ibindi byangombwa nkenerwa mu gukora iki gikorwa cyo kurengera ubuzima bw’umubyeyi.

Zimwe mu mpamvu zishobora gutuma umugore cyangwa umukobwa akuramo inda harimo kuba yarafashwe ku ngufu, kuba yatewe inda n’uwo bahuje isano,kuba yatewe inda akiri umwana ku buryo byamugiraho ingaruka mbi ku buzima bwe n’ubw’umwan yaba ku mubiri ndetse no mu mutwe, kuba yamugiraho ikibazo igihe akomeje kuyitwita, kuba yagira ikibazo ku mwana atwite igihe bigaragara ko nta mahirwe uwo mwana yagira yo kubaho cyangwa se igihe binagaragazwa n’ibizamini bya muganga ko umwana wavuka ashobora kudakura neza bitewe n’ibibazo bitandukanye ku bwonko cyangwa izindi ngingo ze. Na none igihe umugore yatewe inda atabyiteguye ndetse akaba anabona azagira ihungabana no kubura ubushobozi bwo kwita ku mwana wavuka cyane cyane igihe uwayimuteye atiteguye kumufasha kurera umwana cyangwa se n’igihe umuryango utamwakira neza icyo gihe ashobora gufata icyemezo cyo gusanga umuganga wabyigiye kugira ngo amufashe kuyikuramo.
Mu bihugu byateye imbere nko muri Amerika ahari amategeko yemerera abagore gukuramo inda, ngo abakobwa n’abagore bagera kuri 40% baba barakuyemo inda mu gihe runaka mu buzima bwabo. Ku isi yose, inda ziri hagati ya miliyoni 20 na 30 zimaze kuvanwamo mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko naho iziri hagati ya miliyoni 10 na 20 zakuwemo mu buryo butemewe n’amategeko.

Gukuramo inda bitemewe n’amategeko bikururira ababyeyi ibibazo bitandukanye. Muri byo harimo kuva cyane, kwangirika kw’imyanya myibarukiro y’umugore, kuba ingumba tutanaretse n’urupfu cyane ko ababikorera mu bwihisho bifashisha ibyatsi byangiza ubuzima cyangwa se hamwe ukanasanga bamwe twita ba ‘rumashana’ batanatinya gukoresha ibyuma byanduye bishobora kuba inkomoko yo kuba n’uwakujemo inda ashobora no kuhandurira virusi itera sida cyangwa na kanseri.
13% z’impfu z’abagore buri mwaka ziterwa no gukuramo inda bitemewe n’amategeko. Izi mpfu nk’uko bitangazwa na webmed.com ntizirangwa muri Amerika cyangwa ibindi bihugu biha abagore uburenganzira bwo gukuramo inda.

Imibare mishya itangazwa n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye wita ku buzima yerekana ko miliyoni 50 z’inda zikurwamo yaba ku buryo bwemewe n’amategeko cyangwa butayakurikije, 30 muri zo zonyine zibarurirwa mu bihugu bikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere. Igiteye ubwoba ni uko miliyoni 20 muri izo zikurwamo ku buryo bwangiza ubuzima bw’umubyeyi kubera ibura ry’abaganga babihugukiwemo ndetse n’ibindi bikoresho byifashishwa cyangwa se bamwe bakazikuriramo mu bwihisho ari nayo mpamvu benshi zibahitana bityo bikanongera umubare w’ababyeyi bahitanwa n’inda.

Wakwibaza uti ,“ese ubundi ko uko iterambere rigenda ryiyongera uburyo bwo kwirinda gusama umugore atabiteganije bugenda bwigishwa kandi bukanakwirakwizwa mu mavuriro ku buryo buhendutse, kuki benshi bagwa mu mutego wo gusama batabishaka ndetse bikaviramo bamwe gukuramo inda mu bwihisho ndetse n’abihambiriye bakazibyara ugasanga bata ibyo bibondo cyangwa banabarera ugasanga batabaha urukundo n’uburere nyabwo ?”

Mu bigaragara inyigisho z’imikorere y’umubiri w’umuntu ndetse n’iz’ubuzima bw’imyororokere hamwe n’ibura ry’uburere buhagije biri mu bituma iki kibazo cy’inda zitateganijwe ziyongera. Iyo ibi byivanze n’ubujiji ndetse n’ibura rya serivisi z’ubuzima bw’imyororokere ndetse n’imyumvire kuri izi serivisi nabyo bibangamira gahunda zo gukumira izi nda zitateganijwe. Ikindi cyiyongera kuri ibi ni uko mu bihugu byinshi bikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere hatari hashyirwaho amategeko yemerera abagore n’abakobwa gukuramo inda ari nabyo kenshi bituma umubare w’abagore uhasiga ubuzima cyangwa ukanahagirira ubumuga butandukanye. Haracyari imbogamizi zishingiye ku ibura ry’abaganga ndetse n’abajyanama mu by’ubuzima basobanukiwe n’ubuzima bw’imyororokere bafasha abagore gusobanukirwa n’ibijyanye n’imokorere n’imihindagurikire y’imibiri yabo.

Kuba igihugu cy’u Rwanda cyarashyizeho Itegeko ryemerera abagore n’abakobwa gukuramo inda ni indi ntambwe itewe mu kugabanya impfu n’ibindi bibazo byibasira abagore biturutse ku gutwita batabiteganije. Gusa kuba iri tegeko ryaratowe ntibihagije. Aha birasaba ko inzego z’ubuzima, izishinzwe iyubahirizwa ry’uburinganire no kurwanya ihohoterwa mu miryango ndetse n’inzego bwite za Leta zose guhera ku mudugudu kugeza hejuru bagomba gushyira ingufu mu kwigisha abaturage by’umwihariko herekanywa ibyiza byo kugira umugore ufite amagara mazima, ujijukiwe n’imikorere ndetse n’imihindagurikire y’umubiri we. Birakwiye kandi ko aya mategeko amenyeshwa abaturarwanda b’ingeri zose cyane cyane igitsina gore kugira ngo bamenye ko hari amategeko abarengera bityo binagabanye ikibazo cya bamwe bakuramo inda mu bwihisho cyangwa se banagira amahirwe yo kuzibyara bakajugunya ibyo bibondo.

Ni uburenganzira bw’umugore kubona serivisi nziza z’ubuzima kugira ngo arindwe gupfa atanga ubuzima cyangwa izindi ngaruka zishamikiye ku kubura serivisi z’ubuzima zinoze harimo n’uburenganzira bwo gukuramo inda igihe bigaragara ko yamugiraho ingaruka ku buzima harimo n’urupfu. Nihashorwa imari mu kubungabunga ubuzima bw’abana n’ababyeyi ndetse hakanashorwa mu kwigisha ubuzima bw’imyororokere na serivisi zibishamikiyeho byose, ndetse kandi hagashorwa mu kwigisha abaganga b’umumwuga bazafasha abagore cyangwa abakobwa bakenera serivisi zo gukuramo inda babaha inama mbere yo gukora icyo gikorwa, babakurikirana nyuma yo gukuramo inda, nta kabuza ko igihugu kizatera imbere mu bukungu, imibereho myiza n’imiyoborere myiza.

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